The Federal Republic of Nigeria, usually referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coastline in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It contains 36 states and the Federal Funds Territory, the place the cash, Abuja is positioned. Nigeria is formally a democratic secular nation. Nigeria has been home to a quantity of kingdoms and tribal states in excess of the millennia. The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and took its present territorial condition with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British established up administrative and legal structures while practising oblique rule by classic chiefdoms. Nigeria grew to become a formally impartial federation in 1960. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated in between democratically elected civilian governments and military services dictatorships till it obtained a steady democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the initial to be reasonably free of charge and honest. Nigeria is often referred to as the “Huge of Africa”, owing to its large populace and economic system. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous region in the earth. Nigeria has the 3rd-biggest youth populace in the earth, right after India and China, with much more than ninety million of its populace under age 18. The state is seen as a multinational state as it is inhabited by about 500 ethnic teams, of which the 3 premier are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba these ethnic groups communicate over 500 unique languages and are recognized with a extensive variety of cultures. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided approximately in half concerning Christians, who dwell mainly in the southern element of the place, and Muslims, who live typically in the north. A minority of the populace practise religions indigenous to Nigeria, this sort of as these native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. Nigeria, an African place on the Gulf of Guinea, has lots of pure landmarks and wildlife reserves. Safeguarded locations these types of as Cross River National Park and Yankari Countrywide Park have waterfalls, dense rainforest, savanna and unusual primate habitats. One of the most recognizable sites is Zuma Rock, a 725m-tall monolith outside the capital of Abuja which is pictured on the national currency.